Ethnobotanical Herbarium:
local knowledge about useful plants

Open access to peer-reviewed journal articles in ethnobotany via my blog and PubMed, indexed by species. Includes a look-up feature at the Encyclopedia of Life [EoL] and a gallery of photos of medicinal plants on display at leading botanical gardens in the U.S., Mexico, and Europe.

Aegiphila_monstrosa

Aegiphila monstrosa
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Agrimonia_eupatoria

Agrimonia eupatoria
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid
(Photo: WAH)

Alliaria_petiolata

Alliaria petiolata
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Aloe_vera

Aloe vera
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Anthurium_schlechtendalii

Anthurium schlechtendalii
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Arctostaphylos_uva_ursi

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Aristolochia_maxima

Aristolochia maxima
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Artemisia_vulgaris

Artemisia vulgaris
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid
(Photo: WAH)

Artemisia_vulgaris

Artemisia vulgaris
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Bauhinia_divaricata

Bauhinia divaricata
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Bixa_orellana

Bixa orellana
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Bursera_simaruba

Bursera simaruba
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Caesalpinia_gaumeri

Caesalpinia gaumeri
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Catharanthus_roseus

Catharanthus roseus
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Chloranthus_erectus

Chloranthus erectus
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Chondrodendron_tomentosum

Chondrodendron tomentosum
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Citrus_limon

Citrus limon
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Cocos_nucifera

Cocos nucifera
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Cymbopogon_citratus

Cymbopogon citratus
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Ephedra_gerardiana

Ephedra gerardiana
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Euphorbia_dendroides

Euphorbia dendroides
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid
(Photo: WAH)

Fallopia japonica

Fallopia japonica
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Geum rivale

Geum rivale
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Gossypium_hirsutum

Gossypium hirsutum
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Guaiacum_officinale

Guaiacum officinale
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Hypericum_perforatum

Hypericum perforatum
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Ilex_aquifolium

Ilex aquifolium
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Impatiens_capensis

Impatiens capensis
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Jatropha_curcas

Jatropha curcas
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Jatropha_curcas

Jatropha curcas
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Kalanchoe_integra

Kalanchoe integra
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

Abies alba

(欧洲冷杉 [ou zhou leng shan], abete bianco, abeto-branco, pihta evropeiskaia, sapin, silver fir, syhla, weiß-tanne)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Abrus precatorius

(akar saga, crab’s eye, gidee gidee, indian licorice, jequirity, John Crow bead, jumbie bead precatory pea/bean, rosary pea)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Acacia nilotica

(al-sant acacia, babul / kikar, Egyptian thorn, gum arabic tree, karuvela maram, lekkerruikpeul, prickly acacia, sant tree, scented thorn, thorn mimosa)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Acanthopanax trifoliatus / Eleutherococcus trifoliatus

(鹅掌簕, ngu gia bi gai)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Achillea millefolium

(common yarrow, yarrow)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Aconitum ferox

(Indian aconite)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Aconitum heterophyllum

(ativisha)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Aconitum stapfianum

(堵喇)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Adiantum capillus-veneris

(black maidenhair fernk, gya qeiteran, maidenhair fern, southern maidenhair fern, venus hair fern)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Adonis vernalis

(pheasant's eye, kevätruusuleinikki, grand oeil-de-boeuf, adonis de printemps, adonide primaverile, ruscuta primavaratica, goricvet vecennij, adonis vernal, våradonis)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Aesculus assamica

(East Himalayan horse chestnut)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ageratum conyzoides

(billygoat-weed, chick weed, floss flower, goatweed, whiteweed)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Allium chrysanthum

(黄花韭)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Allium cyaneum

(天蓝韭, syyslaukka)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Allium sativum

(garlic; qullubbii)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Alnus incana

(grey alder, witte els, harmaaleppä, aulne blanchâtre, aulne de montagne, grau-erle, gráölur, ontano bianco, anin alb, gråal)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Aloe arborescens

(candelabra aloe; Krantz aloe)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Alstonia angustiloba

(pulai tree)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Alstonia boonei

(cheese wood; emien; pattern wood; stool wood)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Alstonia scholaris

(blackboard tree, indian devil tree, ditabark, milkwood pine, pulai, white cheesewood)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Althaea officinalis

(common marshmallow, marshmallow)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Angelica apaensis

(阿坝当归, jia na)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Anethum graveolens

(dill, kopër, እንስላል, شبث, Սամիթ, Şüyüd, aneta, sowa, Копър, samin, anet, 洋茴香, kopar, kopr, dild, dille, aneto, aedtill, maustetilli, anise, eneldo, კამა, שבת ריחני, adas manis, ディル, ಸಬ್ಬಸಿಗಿ ಸೊಪ್ಪು, aскөк, 딜, phak si, dilles, krapas, adas china, shabit, koper ogrodowy, endro, mărar, Укроп, satapushpi, dile, endaru, kôpor voňavý, hinojo hediondo, சதகுப்பி, శతపుష్పము, ดิล, dereotu, kріп, tiêu hồi hương, krop)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Angiopteris evecta

(giant fern, oriental vessel fern)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Anogeissus leiocarpa

(African birch, ngálǎma, ngálǎma tree)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Aralia elata

(Japanese angelica tree, 楤木, piikkiaralia, medara, turpnamu, аралия высокая, parkaralia)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Arnica montana

(arnica, arnica des montagnes, arnika, mountain arnica)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Artemisia absinthium

(中亚苦蒿, 苦蓬, 웜우드, absinth wormwood, absinto, ajenjo, armoise amère, assenzio, bylica piołun, polyn gor'kaja, wermut)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Artemisia camphorata

(wormwood)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Artemisia maritima

(old woman; sea wormwood; tarakha)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Artemisia vulgaris

(chrysanthemum weed, common wormwood, felon herb, mugwort, naughty man, old Uncle Henry, old man, sailor's tobacco, St. John's plant, wild wormwood)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Asparagus acutifolius

(wild asparagus)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Atractylodes lancea

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Azadirachta indica

(Indian lilac, neem, neem tree, nimtree)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Barringtonia novae-hiberniae

(cut nut, bush cutnut, wild cutnut, pau nut)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Berberis pruinosa

(粉叶小檗, sai mang)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Bergenia ciliata

(budpiah; pashanbheda)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Bidens pilosa

(beggar-ticks, black-jack, cobbler's pegs, Spanish needle)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Bidens tripartita

(water agrimony, 夜叉头, tummarusokki, bident trifolié, eupatoire aquatique, dreiteilige zweizahn, dentiţă, cereda trechrazdel'naja, brunskära)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Bistorta amplexicaulis

(firetail)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Blepharis diversispina

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Boerhavia procumbens

(biskhipra, itsit)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Borago officinalis

(borage, common borage, starflower)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Buddleja asiatica

(Asian butterfly bush, dogtail, white butterfly bush, winter lilac)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Buddleja officinalis

(蒙花树, pole butterflybush)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Byrsonima crassifolia

(chacunga, changunga, craboo, golden spoon, kraabu, maricao cimun, muruçi, nanche, nance, savanna serret, savanna serrette)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Calliandra portoricensis

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Calotropis gigantea

(crown flower, giant calotrope)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Calotropis procera

(akkh, apple of Sodom, giant milkweed, kapok tree, king's crown, rubber bush, rubber tree, Sodom apple, stabragh)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Caltha palustris

(黄花菜, cowflock, huang hua cai, kingcup, marsh marigold)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cannabis sativa

(hemp, marijuana)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cardamine macrophylla

(you)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cardamine tangutorum

(you)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Carum copticum

(ajwain)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cassia sieberiana

(drumstick tree)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cedrela toona

(आपीनः, Indian mahogany, neem)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Chelidonium majus

(白屈菜, cedronha, celandine, chélidoine, čistotel bol'šoj, golondrina, schöllkraut)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Chenopodium album

(藜, bethu sag, chénopode blanc, cherupeera, farinello comune, hélunjóli, jauhosavikka, mar belaja, melganzenvoet, mubvunzandadya, spanac sălbatic, svinmålla, weisser gänsefuss, white goosefoot )

[PubMed] [EoL]

Chenopodium ambrosioides

(epazote, herba sancti Mariæ, Jesuit's tea, Mexican-tea, payqu (paico), wormseed)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cichorium intybus

(chicory)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cinchona sp

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cinnamomum verum / Cinnamomum zeylanicum

(Ceylon cinnamon, Sri Lanka cinnamon, true cinnamon)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cirsium eriophoroides

(贡山蓟, cirse laineux, cirse aranéeux, da ca ma)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Citrullus colocynthis

(el hadja, indrayan इंद्रायण, indrayana इंद्रायणा, Колоцинт, kolokvintti, pekumatti, petikari पेतिकारी, raakhaalashasa राखालशसा, tuera, vine of Sodom)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cistanche tubulosa

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Citrus aurantiifolia

(bartender’s lime, bilolo, dayap, key lime, Mexican lime, Omani lime, West Indian lime)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Citrus aurantium

(bigarade orange, bitter orange, marmalade orange, Seville orange, sour orange)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Citrus limon

(lemon)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Clerodendrum colebrookianum

(East Indian glory bower)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cocos nucifera

(coconut, coconut palm)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Combretum molle

(velvet bushwillow)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Coptis teeta

(雲南黃連, 云南黄连, 云连, ममीरा, hoàng liên, mamira, meng ba, Yunnan goldthread)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cornus mas

(corn, cornelian cherry, corniolo, cornouiller, male, European cornel, European dogwood, дрян, Kızılcık, Κράνα, thana, հոն, زغال اخته, შინდი, 山茱萸, zoğal)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Coriaria nepalensis

(macchaino (मछाईनो), makola/masurya (मसूरिया), masuri (मसूरी), mansur shrub, masuri berry, tanner's tree)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Corymbia intermedia

(pink bloodwood)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Crataegus sanguinea

(辽宁山楂, siperianorapihlaja, épine rouge, épine sanguine, bojaryšnik krovavokrasnyj)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Crescentia cujete

(ayale, calabacero, calabash tree, common calabash tree, cuité, cujete, cuyabra, higuera, huinga, jícaro, kalbas, mate, miracle fruit, pate, rum tree, taparo, totumo)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Crotalaria lachnosema

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Croton fuscescens

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cupressus lusitanica

(cedro blanco, gatirra habasha, Mexican cypress, Mexican white cedar, teotlate)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Curcuma longa

(turmeric)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cussonia arborea

(mufenje, mushondya, mutobvi, octopus cabbage tree, umelemele)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cyathula uncinulata

(bohome, burweed, globe cyathula, klits, maime, rondeklits, tchimate, wolbossie)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cymbopogon citratus

(香茅, レモングラス, bhustrina, capim-santo, cimbopogone, গংধবেনা gandhabena, गंधत्रिण gandhatrina, herbe à moutons, lemon grass, sereh, vlaska, westindisches lemongras, zacate de limón)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Cyperus rotundus

(香附子, hyangbuja, karimuttan, kili'o'opu, nutgrass, ruskosädekaisla, souchet rond)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Delonix regia

(gulmohar, royal poinciana)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Dendrocalamus strictus

(印度实竹, বাঁশ bams, બાંસ bans, बांस bans, ಬಿದಿರು bidiru, वेळू velu, वंश vansha, காட்டுமூங்கில் kattu-munkil, పోతువెదురు potu veduru, بانس bansa, bans, male bamboo, mula, phai sang, tummatukkibambu)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Derris scandens

(derris powder, hog creeper, tuba root)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Dillenia pentagyna

(小花五桠果, বন চালতা ban chalta, કરમલ karmal, करमल karmal, ಕಾಡು ಕಣಿಗಲು kaadu kanigalu, पिवळा करमळ piwala karmal, पुन्नाग punnaga, புன்னை வகை punnai vakai, రేవడ revada, ส้านช้าง, okshi, railgatcho, vazhapunna)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Dodonaea viscosa

(hopbush, hopseed bush, viraali (விராலி))

[PubMed] [EoL]

Dyera costulata

(jelutong)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Dysosma tsayuensis

(西藏八角莲, dong na long dong)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Engelhardtia spicata

(烟包树, ฮ้อยจั่น)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ephedra gerardiana

(Gerard's jointfir, Indian jointfir, 山岭麻黄, shan ling ma huang)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Equisetum arvense

(common horsetail, field horsetail, mare’s tail)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Erigeron breviscapus

(灯盏草, ra jiang)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Eucalyptus globulus

(blue gum, bluegum eucalyptus, safeda, southern blue gum, Tasmanian blue gum)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Eucomis autumnalis

(autumn pineapple flower, autumn pineapple lily)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Eugenia uniflora

(Brazilian cherry, cayenne cherry, cerisier carré, pitanga, Surinam cherry)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Euphorbia tithymaloides / Pedilanthus tithymaloides

(agia, airi, aperejo, baire, bird cactus, buck-thorn, Christmas candle, cimora, devil’s backbone, fiddle flower, gin-ryu, ipecacuahana, itamo real, Jacob's ladder, Japanese poinsettia, Jew's slipper, jewbush, milk-hedge, misha, myrtle-leaved spurge, padus-leaved clipper plant, pantoufle, penawar lipan, pineapple flower, pokok lipan, redbird cactus, redbird flower, red slipper spurge, sapatinho do diabo, slipper flower, slipper plant, slipper spurge, timora misha, zapatilla del diablo, zig-zag plant)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Euphorbia heterophylla

(白苞猩猩草, euphorbe à cyathe, liekkityräkki, Mexican fireplant)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Eutrema yunnanense

(bei)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Fallopia multiflora

(Chinese knotweed, 何首乌, hé shǒu wū, tuber fleeceflower)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Fargesia macclureana

(西藏箭竹, la rang)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Fevillea passiflora

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ficus adenosperma

(fig, riverine fig)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ficus copiosa

(fig, plentiful fig)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ficus racemosa

(cluster fig, clustertree, goolar (gular) fig, Indian fig, uḍumbara, udumbara)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ficus sur

(broom cluster fig, cape fig)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Foeniculum vulgare

(fennel)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Fragaria orientalis

(东方草莓)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Glinus lotoides

(damascisa, lotus sweetjuice)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Gliricidia sepium

(cacao de nance, cachanance, kakawate, mata ratón, madero negro, madreado, madre cacao, madre de cacao, quickstick)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Gnaphalium uliginosum

(marsh cudweed, savijäkkärä, gnaphale des lieux humides, gnaphale des marais)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Gomphostemma parviflorum

(小花锥花 (xiao hua zhui hua))

[PubMed] [EoL]

Gossypium barbadense

(extra long staple cotton, sea island cotton)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Guibourtia conjugata

(small false mopane)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Gymnocladus assamicus

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Gymnopetalum integrifolium

(凤瓜)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Haematoxylum campechianum

(bloodwood tree, logwood)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Harungana madagascariensis

(haronga, praying-hands)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hedyotis scandens

(凉喉茶 ; 攀茎耳草)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Helichrysum arenarium

(dwarf everlasting, 沙生蜡菊, hietaolkikukka, immortelle des sables, gnaphale des sables, siminoc, bessmertnik pesčanyj, hedblomster)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Heliotropium indicum

(Indian heliotrope)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hermannia micropetala

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hesperis matronalis

(damask violet, dame's gilliflower, dame's rocket, dame’s-violet, dames-wort, mother-of-the-evening, night-scented gilliflower, queen’s gilliflower, rogue's gilliflower, summer lilac, sweet rocket, winter gilliflower)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hibiscus sabdariffa

(roselle)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hibiscus tiliaceus / Talipariti tiliaceum

(beach hibiscus, coastal (or coast) cottonwood, coastal (or coast) hibiscus, cottonwood hibiscus, green cottonwood, hau, Hawaii sea-hibiscus, kurrajong, native hibiscus, native rosella, Norfolk hibiscus, purau, sea hibiscus, sea rosemallow)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hieracium pilosella

(mouse-ear hawkweed)

[PubMed] [EOL]

Hippophae rhamnoides

(choq, common sea-buckthorn)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hornstedtia scottiana

(jiddo, native cardamom, Scott's ginger)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Houttuynia cordata

(鱼腥草, คาวทอง, chameleon, chauttjujnija serdcevidnaja, chinesischer eidechsenschwanz, dokudami, ezüst szirtőr, giáp cá, hoyttynia, hutínia, hutujnija, phak khao thong, pstrolistka sercowata, soorohi, viherkameleonttilehti)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hypericum choisianum

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hypericum forrestii

(Forrest's St. John's wort, Forrest's tutsan, muwaniba)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hypericum perforatum

(common Saint John's Wort, perforate Saint John’s wort, Saint John's wort)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Hypoxis latifolia

(broad-leaved hypoxis, igudu, ilabatheka, ilabetheka, ingcobo, inkomfe, yellow star)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Impatiens hawkeri

(New Guinea impatiens)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Inonotus obliquus

(chaga, pakurikääpä, polypore incrusté, schiefer schillerporling, kreftkjuke)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ipomoea pandurata

(big-rooted morning glory, man-of-the-earth, manroot, wild potato vine)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Jasonia glutinosa

(té de roca)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Jurinea dolomiaea

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Justicia adhatoda

(adulsa, adhatoda, bashok, Malabar nut, vasa, vasaka)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Justicia pectoralis

(carpintero, chapantye, curia, death-angel, freshcut, masha-harivari, piri piri kiri kos kesh, té criollo, tilo, zeb chapantyè)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Kaempferia galanga

(aromatic ginger, cutcherry, galanga, kencur, resurrection lily, sand ginger)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Kalanchoe prolifera

(sodifafana)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Kopsia fruticosa

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Lactarius deliciosus

(dooierzwam, edelreizker, furumatriske, lactaire délicieux, lactário, männynleppärousku, rovellón, saffron milkcap)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Lantana camara

(big sage, red sage, white sage, wild sage, tickberry, West Indian lantana)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ledum palustre / Rhododendron tomentosum

(Northern Labrador tea, 细叶杜香, suopursu, skvattram)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Leonotis nepetifolia

(Christmas candlestick, granthi, hejurchei, shandilay)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ligusticum chuanxiong / Ligusticum sinense

(西芎, gaoben)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Lindera neesiana

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Lippia graveolens

(Mexican oregano, orégano Cimmaron, redbrush lippia, scented lippia, scented matgrass)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Litchi chinensis

(lichi, lichia, 荔枝, litchi de Chine, reishi)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Litsea cubeba

(山胡椒, 木姜子, aromatic litsea, de yi, khao khinh, maqaw, may chang, mountain pepper, sambal)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Litsea pungens

(香桂子, ta er)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Loeseneriella crenata

(lorho, nhlohlo, valley paddle-pod)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Macaranga aleuritoides

(maasiko)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Malachra alceifolia

(malachra, yellow leafbract)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Malva neglecta

(common mallow)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mangifera indica

(mango)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Matricaria chamomilla

(camomile, chamomile, German chamomile, Hungarian chamomile, kamilla, scented mayweed, wild chamomile)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Melastoma malabathricum

(Malabar melastome, 喳吧叶, thodukkara)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Melia azedarach

(bead-tree, Cape lilac, chinaberry, chinaberry tree, dreik, Indian lilac, Persian lilac, syringa berrytree, white cedar)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mentha longifolia

(horse mint)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mentha piperita

(peppermint)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mentha sativa

(mint)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Merremia peltata

(hogouna)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mesua ferrea

(Ceylon ironwood, cobra's saffron, Indian rose chestnut, iron wood tree)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mikania micrantha

(American rope, bitter vine, climbing hemp vine, matapa, mile-a-minute)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mollugo nudicaulis

(nakedstem carpetweed, 裸茎栗米草, ullukkumarunnu chedi)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Momordica charantia

(bitter melon, 苦瓜, karela, ツルレイシ, melão de São Caetano, melón amargo)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Morina longifolia

(Himalayan whorlflower, kandmool, kim, Nepalese whorlflower, whorlflower)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Moringa oleifera

(benzoil tree, benzoil tree, drumstick tree, horseradish tree, miracle tree, moringa, sojina)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Mucuna novo-guineensis

(aiya, aiwa, New Guinea creeper, red jade vine)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Murraya exotica

(buis de Chine, orange jasmine, rameau)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Musa sapientum

(si kuy)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Nannorrhops ritchiana

(mazara, mazari palm)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Neolitsea chinensis

(gwain, maidasek)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Nephrolepis cordifolia

(肾蕨, néphrolépide à feuilles cordées, pystysulkasaniainen, tuberous sword fern)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Neurolaena lobata

(sepi, zebapique)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Nigella sativa

(common fennel flower, kalongi, kalonji, nigella)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Notopterygium incisum

(蚕羌, notopterygium root)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ocimum gratissimum

(African basil, clove basil, wild basil)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Origanum majorana

(knotted marjoram, marjoram, pot marjoram, sweet marjoram)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Origanum vulgare

(oregano)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Paederia scandens

(鸡矢藤, jishiteng)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Paederia thouarsiana

(vahivola, vahimantsina)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Paris polyphylla

(七葉一枝花, bajuro, satuwa)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Pavetta crassipes

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Peganum harmala

(骆驼蓬, adraspan, harmal, harmala, isirik, pilviharmikki, Гармала, sipand, steppenraute, Syrian rue, uzarih)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Persicaria glabra

(denseflower knotweed, kathali kot)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Persicaria hydropiper

(marshpepper knotweed, pakarmul, Пипериче, 辣蓼, vodeni papar, rdesno peprník, waterpeper, mõru kirburohi, katkeratatar, renouée poivre d'eau, wasserpfeffer, borsos keserűfű, si tuba sawah, poligono pepe d'acqua, asabu-tade, 개여뀌, daun senahun, vaspeppar, rdest ostrogorzki, erva-pessegueira, piper de baltă, gorec perečnyj, lus an fhògair, Štiav pieprový, poprasta drese, pimienta acuática, bitterpilört, ผักไผ่น้ำ, zu biberi, Гірчак перцевий, Nghể nước)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Persicaria vivipara / Bistorta vivipara

(珠芽蓼, alpine bistort, iarba şopârlelor, knöllchen-knöterich, kornsúra, nurmitatar, ormrot, poligono viviparo, renouée vivipare)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Picrorhiza kurrooa

(kutki)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Pimpinella anisum

(anise, aniseed, razyane)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Pinus armandii

(白松, Chinese white pine, Davids kiefer, kiinansembra, kínai dió-selyemfenyo, pino di Armand, сосна Арманда (sosna Armanda))

[PubMed] [EoL]

Piper chaba / Piper retrofractum

(choi jhal, chui jhal, Javanese long pepper)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Plantago major

(barhang, broadleaf plantain, greater plantain, llantén)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Platycodon grandiflorus

(铃当花, ballonblume, balloon-flower, cátcánh, doraji, jalokello, kikyo)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Polygonatum cirrhifolium

(滇钩吻)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Podophyllum hexandrum

(bantrapushi, gangorra, giriparpat, Himalayan mayapple, kakora, kakorra)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Polygonatum verticillatum

(noorealam, whorled Solomon's-seal)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Polygonum hydropiper

(marshpepper knotweed, ngashing, water pepper)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Polygonum tortuosum / Aconogonon tortuosum

(叉枝神血宁, ya rong)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Potentilla anserina

(蕨麻委陵菜, ba xi, briosglán, cinquefoglia piè d'oca, gänse-fingerkraut, gåsemure, gåsört, hierba de ganso, ketohanhikki, potentille des oies, silverweed, zilverschoon)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Premna serratifolia

(agnimantha, अग्निमंथ, alagaw, arani, अरणी, bastard guelder, karuwana)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Psidium guajava

(common guava, guava, jambu batu, lemon guava, piyara, yellow guava)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Pteridium aquilinum

(bracken, brake, common bracken, eagle fern)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Pterocarpus indicus

(amboine, angsana, hondo, Malay paduak, New Guinea rosewood; narra, pashu padauk, sang drago, sena, sonokembang, tnug)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Punica granatum

(anar, daroona, granada, gránátalma, granatapfel, granatäpple, grenade, grenadine, melagrana, melograno, pomegranate, pomogranà)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Quercus aquifolioides

(巴郎栎, sen nie ya ye)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Rauvolfia serpentina

(asrel, chandra, chandrabagha, chivan amelpodi, chota chand, chuvanna-vilpori, devil-pepper, harkaya, harki, Indian snakeroot, paataala garuda, paataala goni, patalagondhi, patalgarur, sanochada, sarpagandha, sarpagandhi, serpentine wood, shivavabhiballi, snakeroot, sutranavi, suvapavalforiyan)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Rauvolfia verticillata

(麻桑端, vanduvara)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ribes alpestre / Ribes reclinatum

(刺茶藨子, European gooseberry, groseillier à maquereaux, krusbär)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ribes himalense

(埃牟茶藨子, ong m li)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Rosa omeiensis

(山石榴, ha ji ba bu)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Rosa sericea

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Roscoea alpina

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Rubia cordifolia

(common madder, enchibir, Indian madder, majith, manditti, manjistha, sticky-leaved rubia, tamaralli)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Rubus biflorus

(三花梅, yi na/zi ga)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Rubus parvifolius

(薅田藨, threeleaf blackberry)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ruta chalepensis

(fringed rue, tselto, tsenadam, xeenaadama)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ruta graveolens

(common rue, herb-of-grace, rue)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Saccharum officinarum

(sugarcane)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Salvia hians

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sambucus adnata

(血满草, ong na nie na san dou ba)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sambucus nigra

(black elder, elder, elderberry, European black elderberry, European elder, European elderberry, sammuco)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sanguinaria canadensis

(bloodroot, bloodwort, Canada goldenrod, pauson, red puccoon, redroot)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sarcochlamys pulcherrima

(球隔麻 , 肉被麻 , duggal fibre tree, mesaki, ombe)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sargentodoxa cuneata

(血藤)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Saussurea auriculata

(白背风毛菊 , kushtha, kut)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Scolymus maculatus

(gernina, jarnij, spotted golden thistle, spotted oyster thistle, sra)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Senna alata

(candelabra bush, candle bush, candletree, Christmas candles, emperor's candlesticks, empress candle plant, ringworm shrub, ya la mer pa do)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Senna occidentalis

(cana fista, coffee senna, cumandai, gajarság, hant-thenga, habuso, kalkashunda, 望江南, kahvisenna, kanéfis, kasamarda, kasonji, kasundri, kolthogache, mattantakara, muông hoè, payaveri, ran-takda, soggjolmjong, thangedu)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Senna pendula

(butterfly senna, Christmas cassia, Christmas senna, climbing cassia, climbing senna, Easter cassia, fedegoso, golden senna, golden shower, senna, valamuerto, winter senna)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sinopodophyllum hexandrum / Podophyllum hexandrum

(鬼臼, dong na long, fotblad, himalajanjalkalehti, Himalayan mayapple, laghu pâttrâ, podofill gimalajskij)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Solanum etiopicum / Solanum aethiopicum

(apataniseh, Ethiopian nightshade)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Solanum indicum

(African eggplant, bush tomato, Indian nightshade, kharangeh, ntunfulu, poison berry)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Solanum surattense

(kanderi, kandiari/muhakri)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Solanum torvum

(bâtard balengène, berenjena cimarrona, berenjena de gallina, berenjena silvestre, boo, friega-platos, kabatokopau, koroh, makhua phuang, tomatillo, turkey berry, devil’s fig, pea eggplant, pea aubergine, pendejera, prickly nightshade, shoo-shoo bush, sundaikkai, susumber, suzume nasu/雀茄子), tabacón, tekokak, terongan, thibbatu, turkeyberry, wild eggplant, zamorette, சுண்டைக்காய், มะเขือพวง)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sorbus aucuparia

(amur mountain-ash, European mountain-ash, mountain-ash, quick beam, rowan, rowan-berry)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sorbus cuspidata

(白叶花楸 (bai ye hua qiu), lekh mayal)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Sorbus thibetica

( 康藏花楸, bo lan, Tibetan whitebeam)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Spondias mombin

(আমড়া, akukor, ambado, ambaló, ambaralla (ඇඹරැල්ල), ambate/amate kaayi, ambazham, ashanti plum, cajá, ciruela, cóc, coolie plum, golden apple, gully plum, hog plum, isada, iyeye/yeye, Java plum, jocote de corona, junglee aam, mango ciruelo, mangotin, mope, ngulungwu, nkunia guenguere kunansieto, omora (অমৰা), Spanish plum, taperebá, true yellow mombin, uvos, yellow mombin)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

(假马鞭, blue porterweed, kariyartharani, verveine)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Struthanthus orbicularis

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Swertia chirayita

(chirayita, chiretta, kirata)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Synotis alatus

(翅柄千里光, 翅柄合耳菊 (chi bing he er ju))

[PubMed] [EoL]

Talinum paniculatum

(土人参, jewels of Opar)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Tamarindus indica

(tamarind)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Tanacetum vulgare

(common tansy, 艾菊, pietaryrtti, tanaisie commune, sent-bon, tanaceto, flores tanaceti, vetrice, dikaja rjabina, hierba lombriguera, renfana)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Terminalia catappa

(abrofo, almendro, badam, beach almond, bedan (بيدان ), Bengal almond, castanhola, country almond, ebelebo, Indian almond, ketapang, khungu, kotōl (kʷo͡ɤdˠʌ͡ɛlʲ), kottamba, louze, Malabar almond, midhili, nkatie, sea almond, Singapore almond, talis, talisay, tallitenga (തല്ലി തേങ്ങ), tavola, tropical almond, zanmande)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Tetrapanax papyrifer

(通草, Chinese rice-paper plant, tetrapanaks bumažnyj, tsuso)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Thymus vulgaris

(garden thyme, German thyme, jatre, thyme)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Toddalia asiatica

(cockspur orange, gwambadzi, mururue, orange climber, ranklemoentjie)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Trigonella foenum-graecum

(abish, fenugreek, helbah, sicklefruit fenugreek)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Urtica dioica

(common nettle, stinging nettle)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Usnea spp

(beard lichen, bi ba beng suo, naavat, old man's beard)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Vallaris glabra

(bread flower, kesidang)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Veronica anagallis-aquatica

(blue water-speedwell, bong ga neng bong, brook pimpernel, water speedwell)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Viburnum opulus

(guelder-rose, 天目琼花, koiranheisi, viorne obier, viorne aquatique, gemeiner schneeball, oppio, călin, kalina obyčajná, mundillo, olvon)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Viscum album

(Europeam mistletoe, mistletoe)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Waltheria indica

(basora prieta, fulutafu, hierba de soldado, guimauve, kafaki, mauve-gris, moto-branco, sleepy morning, ʻuhaloa)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Withania somnifera

(ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, rennet, winter cherry)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Xylopia acutiflora

(?)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Xysmalobium undulatum

(bitterhout, bitterwortel (bitter root), milk bush, milkwort, uzara, wild cotton)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Zanthoxylum armatum

(Nepal pepper, Nepalese pepper, timur, winged prickly ash)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Zanthoxylum bungeanum

(大椒, hua jiao, ye ma)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Zea mays

(bottha, corn, maize, mealie, mielie, milho)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Zingiber montanum

(banadrak, blae ko bor, Cassumunar ginger, gung do, kaattu-inchi, phlai, vanardraka)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Zingiber officinale

(ada, garden ginger, ginger, inchi-ver)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Zingiber ottensii

(blae ko sue)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Ziziphus nummularia

("ban Kul""""", ચણીબોર chanibor, गांगर gangar, झड़बेरी jhar-beri, جهڙبيري jhar-beri, jujube, ಮುಳ್ಳುಹಣ್ಣು mulluhannu, நரியிலந்தை nari-y-ilantai, رمیلک ramilak, రేగుకంప regu kampa, सूक्ष्मफल sukshmaphala)

[PubMed] [EoL]

Lantana_involucrata

Lantana involucrata
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Laurus_nobilis

Laurus nobilis
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid
(Photo: WAH)

Lippia_dulcis

Lippia dulcis
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Lippia_graveolens

Lippia graveolens
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Malvaviscus_arboreus

Malvaviscus arboreus
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Melicoccus_oliviformis

Melicoccus oliviformis
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Metopium_brownei

Metopium brownei
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Mosannona_depressa

Mosannona depressa
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Origanum_majorana

Origanum majorana
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Papaver_somniferum

Papaver somniferum
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Parmentiera_aculeata

Parmentiera aculeata
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Passiflora_itzensis

Passiflora itzensis
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Pedilanthus_tithymaloides

Pedilanthus tithymaloides
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Persea_americana

Persea americana
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Pilocarpus_pennatifolius

Pilocarpus pennatifolius
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Pimenta_dioica

Pimenta dioica
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Piper_amalago

Piper amalago
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Piper_methysticum

Piper methysticum
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Punica_granatum

Punica granatum
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Rauvolfia_tetraphylla

Rauvolfia tetraphylla
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Ruscus_aculeatus

Ruscus aculeatus
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Santolina_chamaecyparissus

Santolina chamaecyparissus
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Secamone_afzelii

Secamone afzelii
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Serenoa_repens

Serenoa repens
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Strychnos_spinosa

Strychnos spinosa
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Syzygium_jambos

Syzygium jambos
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Talisia_oliviformis

Talisia oliviformis
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Tamarindus_indica

Tamarindus indica
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

Tradescantia_spathacea

Tradescantia spathacea
Yaax Che Jardin Botanico `Dr. Alfredo Barrera Marin`
(Photo: WAH)

Urtica_dioica

Urtica dioica
New York Botanical Garden
(Photo: WAH)

Voacanga_africana

Voacanga africana
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem
(Photo: WAH)

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